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Vertical Profiler Provides Continuous Monitoring In High Hypolimnetic Sulfide Concentrations

Vertical Profiler Provides Continuous Monitoring In High Hypolimnetic Sulfide Concentrations


The Yigal Allon Kinneret Limnological Laboratory (KLL) is located on the NW shore of
Lake Kinneret (Sea of Galilee). This lab monitors major environmental factors that determine the state of the lake and conducts limnological research aimed at understanding how present and future conditions might affect the ecosystem of the lake and the quality of its water.

The Kinneret monitoring program includes weekly and bi-weekly collection of water samples from various locations in Lake Kinneret, and analysis of various physical, chemical, and biological parameters. Additionally, several parameters are measured continuously at a central location in the lake and the data is transmitted in a near real-time to the laboratory database.

The broad range of questions considered by the lab include such diverse topics as Lake Kinneret hydrodynamics; transport processes of nutrients and pollutants into the lake and their bio-geochemical cycles within the lake; structure and function of the lake ecosystem; factors that govern the development of toxic cyanobacteria; responses of the lake ecosystem to water level fluctuations; the effect of human activities and agricultural/urban developments on the lake system and water quality; and development of limnological models to simulate the major limnological processes and to assess various lake management scenarios.

All Rights Reserved. Photo. 2022


Yigal Allon Kinneret Limnological Lab, Israel


It was critical for the lab to find equipment that would provide reliability and ease of data collection under the specific conditions of Lake Kinneret, such as the ability to monitor under high hypolimnetic sulfide concentrations (these concentrations require a double junction reference electrode for pH and ORP cells that were only offered by Eureka) and optical dissolved oxygen measurements.


On a floating platform, scientists installed a customized, stainless steel Eureka Manta multiprobe with a Vertical Profiler. The Profiler continuously operates up and down in a 40 meter span, stopping at various depths to take readings and then transmits the readings in near real time to the research base. The system was programmed to profile the water column of the Sea of Galilee at its deepest point (36 - 42 m as a function of lake level) five times a day and to collect data at a 0.5 m depth resolution.

The combination of the Manta multiprobe and the AutoReel, an autonomous winch unit, proved to be very successful in Lake Kinneret. Scientists found it to be easy to install, program, and calibrate, and simple to collect data. Using reliable sensors from top manufacturers, it has become a valuable tool that allows for continuous monitoring of the water column of Lake Kinneret while including surface and near bottom layers that were not accessible with former equipment.


Since 2010, customized Eureka Manta multiprobes, in combination with the autonomous winch unit, have performed extremely well on the floating platform. It was proven that only the Mantas could operate under the specific conditions of Lake Kinneret (i.e., the ability to monitor under high hypolimnetic sulfide concentrations) and only minor interruptions occurred due to inevitable sensor or cable replacements.

An overview of the data flow over 365 days can be viewed here:

Specific profiles on a day-to-day basis can be seen here.

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